“My favorite aspect of the program is the “hands on experience” it provides through opportunities for internships, seminars and visits to criminal justice agencies. I believe the most long-lasting, vital lessons are the practical ones. ”

Asheka Jackson
CJC student
Cognate areas of study

Cognate areas of study

A cognate area is an area of specialized study within the MS-CJC degree. Those selecting the non-thesis option must designate one cognate area. Students must take a minimum of one class in that cognate area, and must read the essential readings from the reading list of their cognate area. The five possible cognate areas, related course requirements, and list of reading materials for each cognate area are as follows:

Courts and the Criminal Process
Women and Crime
Juvenile Justice, Delinquency, and Gangs

Cognate areas of study


Students choosing this area must take at least one of the following courses for graduate credit:
CJC 351 Policing in the Community
CJC 353 Legal Aspects of Policing
CJC 5551 Seminar in Policing

Essential Readings for Policing: 4 books and 4 articles

  • Bayley, David H. 1998. What Works in Policing. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Eck, John E. and William Spelman. 1987. “Who Ya Gonna Call? The Police as Problem Busters.” Crime and Delinquency 33: 31-52.
  • Goldstein, Herman. 1990. Problem-Oriented Policing. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Greene, Jack R. 2000. “Community policing in America: Changing the Nature, Structure and Function of the Police.” pp. 299-370 in Criminal Justice 2000, Volume 3: Policies, Processes and Decisions in the Criminal Justice System. National Institute of Justice: Washington, DC.
  • Kelling, George L. and Coles, Catherine M. 1996. Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities. Free Press: New York.
  • Kelling, George L. and Mark H. Moore. 1988. “The Evolving Strategy of Policing.” Perspectives on Policing. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
  • Sherman, Lawrence W. 1992. Policing Domestic Violence. Free Press, New York.
  • Sherman, Lawrence W. and David Weisburd. 1995. “General Deterrent Effects of Police Patrol in Crime “Hot Spots”: A Randomized, Controlled Trial”, Justice Quarterly, 12: 625-48.

Recommended Readings for Policing:

  • Bayley, David H. 1994. Police for the Future. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Black, Donald 1980. The Manners and Customs of the Police. New York: Academic Press.
  • Cordner, Gary W. 1995. “Community Policing: Elements and Effects.” Police Forum 5:1-8.
  • Dunham, Roger G. and Geoffrey P. Alpert. 1997. Critical Issues in Policing, 3rd Ed. Waveland: Prospect Hts., IL.
  • Geller, William A. and Hans Toch. 1995. And Justice for All: Understanding and Controlling Police Abuse of Force. Police Executive Research Forum: Washington, DC.
  • Mastrofski, Stephen D., Robert E. Worden and Jeffery B. Snipes (1995) “Law Enforcement in a Time of Community Policing”. Criminology, 33:539-563.
  • Ricksheim, E. and S. Chermak. 1994. “Causes of Police Behavior Revisited.” Journal of Criminal Justice 21:353-82.
  • Rosenbaum, Dennis P. (1994), The Challenge of Community Policing: Testing the Promises, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • Trojanowicz, Robert and Bonnie Bucqueroux. 1990. Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing Company.

Cognate areas of study

Courts and the Criminal Process

Students choosing this area must take at least one of the following courses for graduate credit:
CJC 320 Supreme Court and the Criminal Process
CJC 5500 Sociology of Law

Essential Readings for Courts and the Criminal Process: 5 books and 8 articles


  • Black, D. (1989). Sociological Justice. NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Burnett, C. (2002). Justice Denied. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
  • Chambliss, W. and Zatz, M. (Eds.). (1993). Making Law. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
  • Levit, N. (1998). The Gender Line. NY: New York University Press.
  • Zalman, M. (2006). Essentials of Criminal Procedure. Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Prentice Hall.


  • Albonetti, Celesta A. (1987). "Prosecutorial Discretion: The Effects of Uncertainty." Law and Society Review 21: 291-313.
  • Angel, Marina. (2008). "Why Judy Norman acted in reasonable self-defense: An abused woman and a sleeping man," Buffalo Woman's Law Journal, 16, 65-88.
  • Blumberg, A. S. (1967). "The practice of law as a confidence game: Organizational co-optation of a profession." Law & Society Review, 1, 15-39.
  • Bright, S. (Summer 2003). "Gideon's reality: After four decades, where are we?" Criminal Justice, 18, 5-12.
  • Galanter, M. (1999). "Do the "haves" still come out ahead?" Law & Society Review, 33(4), 1113-1123.
  • Leipold, A. (2005). "How the pretrial process contributes to wrongful convictions." American Criminal Law Review, 42, 1123-1165.
  • Macdonald, S. (2008). "Constructing a framework for criminal justice research: Learning from Packer's mistakes." New Criminal Law Review, 11, 257-310.
  • Tyler, T. (1988). "What is procedural justice? Criteria used by citizens to assess the fairness of legal procedures." Law & Society Review, 22(1), 103-136.

Recommended Readings for Courts and the Criminal Process:

  • Church, Thomas. 1985 "Examining Local Legal Culture."American Bar Foundation Research Journal:449-518.
  • Cripe, C. A. (1997). Legal Aspects of Correctional Management. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publication.
  • delCarmen, R.V., S.E. Ritter, and B.A. Witt (1998 or later edition). Briefs of Leading Cases in Corrections. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
  • delCarmen, R.V., M. Parker, and F.P. Reddington (1998 or later edition). Briefs of Leading Cases in Juvenile Justice. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
  • delCarmen, R.V., and J.T. Walker (1997 or later edition). Briefs of Leading Cases in Law Enforcement. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
  • Eisenstein, James and Herbert Jacob. 1977. Felony Justice: An Organizational Analysis of Criminal Courts. Boston: Little, Brown.
  • Gross, Samuel R. and Robert Mauro. 1989. Death and Discrimination: Racial Disparities in Capital Sentencing. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
  • Kappeler, V.E. (2001 or later edition). Critical Issues in Police Civil Liability. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
  • Myers, Martha A. and Susette M. Talarico. 1987. The Social Contexts of Criminal Sentencing. New York: Springer-Verlag.
  • Peltason, J.W. (1988 or laterion). Understanding the Constitution. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc.
  • Wasby, S. L. (1989 or later ed). The Supreme Court in the Federal Judicial System. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Cognate areas of study


Students choosing this area must take at least one of the following courses for graduate credit:
CJC 371 Community Corrections
CJC 373 Institutional Corrections
CJC 5570 Contemporary Corrections and Correctional Policy
CJC 5571 Legal Aspects of CJC Professionals
CJC 5575 Correctional Treatment and Rehabilitation.

Essential Readings for Corrections: 4 books and 3 articles

  • Andrews, D.A., Zinger, I., Hoge, R.D., Bonta, J., Gendreau, P., Cullen, F.T. (1990). “Does correctional treatment work? A clinically relevant and psychologically informed meta-analysis.” Criminology 28(3): 369-404.
  • Currie, E. (1998). Crime and Punishment in America. New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc.
  • Lab, S.P., and Whitehead, J.T. (1988). “An analysis of juvenile correctional treatment.” Crime and Delinquency 34(1):60-83.
  • Petersilia, Joan (editor). 1998. Community Corrections: Probation, Parole and Intermediate Sanctions. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Rothman, D. (1980). Conscience and Convenience: The Asylum and its Alternatives in Progressive America. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown, and Company.
  • Spelman, William. 1994. Criminal Incapacitation. New York: Plenum.
  • Von Hirsch, A. (1990). “Politics of ‘just deserts’.” Canadian Journal of Criminology 32(3):397-413.

Recommended Readings for Corrections

  • Andrews, D.A., and Bonta, J. (2000). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
  • Austin, James and John Irwin. 2001. It's About Time: America's Imprisonment Binge., 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Byrne, James M., Arthur J. Lurigio, and Joan Petersilia (editors). 1992. Smart Sentencing: The Emergence of Intermediate Sanctions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Clear, T.R. (1994). Harm in American Penology: Offenders, Victims, and Their Communities. Albany, New York: Albany State University of New York Press.
  • Cullen, Francis T. and Karen Gilbert. 1982. Reaffirming Rehabilitation. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
  • Currie, E. (1985). Confronting Crime: An American Challenge. Westminster, MD: Random House Distribution Co.
  • Currie, E. (1989). “Confronting crime: Looking toward the 21st century.” Justice Quarterly 6(1): 5-25.
  • Ehrlich, I. (1981). “On the usefulness of controlling individuals: An economic analysis of rehabilitation incapacitation, and deterrence.” American Economic Review 71(3):307-322.
  • Feeley, Malcolm M. and Jonathan Simon. 1992. "The New Penology: Notes on the Emerging Strategy of Corrections and its Implications." Criminology 30:449-474.
  • Flanagan, Timothy, ed. 1995. Long-Term Imprisonment: Policy, Science and Correctional Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Fogel, David. 1979. "… We Are the Living Proof .. ” The Justice Model for Corrections, 2nd ed. Cincinnati: Anderson.
  • Garland, David. 1990. Punishment and Modern Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Gendreau, P. and Ross, B. (1979). “Effective correctional treatment: Bibliotherapy for cynics.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 22(4):287-308.
  • Goodstein, Lynne and John R. Hepburn. 1985. Determinate Sentencing and Imprisonment: A Failure of Reform. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
  • Haas, Kenneth C. and Geoffrey P. Alpert. 1999. The Dilemmas of Corrections. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
  • Irwin, John. 1980. Prisons in Turmoil. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
  • Irwin, John. 1985. The Jail: Managing the Underclass in American Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Logan, Charles H. 1990. Private Prisons: Cons and Pros. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Martinson, Robert (1974). “What Works? – Questions and answers about prison reform.” The Public Interest. 35: 22-54.
  • Mathiesen, Thomas. 1990. Prison on Trial. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Palmer, Ted (1992). The Re-Emergence of Correctional Intervention. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Paternoster, Raymond. 1987. "The Deterrent Effect of the Perceived Certainty and Severity of Punishment: A Review of the Evidence and Issues." Justice Quarterly 4: 173-217.
  • Silberman, Matthew 1995. A World of Violence: Corrections in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Sykes, Gresham. M. 1958. The Society of Captives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Van den Haag, Ernest. 1975. Punishing Criminals: Concerning a Very Old and Painful Question. New York: Basic Books.
  • Van Voorhis, Patricia, Braswell, Michael, and Lester, David (2000). Correctional Counseling and Rehabilitation (4th edition). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
  • Von Hirsch, Andrew. 1985. Past or Future Crimes. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
  • Zedlewski, E.W. (1989). “New mathematics if imprisonment: A reply to Zimring and Hawkins.” Crime and Delinquency 35(1):169-173.
  • Zimring, F.E. and Hawkins, G. (1988). “New mathematics of imprisonment.” Crime and Delinquency 34(4):425-436.

Women and Crime

Students choosing this area must take at least one of the following courses for graduate credit:
CJC 435 Gender and Law
CJC 450 Women and Crime

Essential Readings for Women and Crime: 4 books and 3 articles

  • Acoca, Leslie 1998. “Defusing the Time Bomb: Understanding and Meeting the Growing Health Care Needs of Incarcerated Women in America.” Crime & Delinquency 44(1):49-69.
  • Chesney-Lind, Meda and Randall G. Shelden. 1998. Girls, Delinquency and Juvenile Justice, 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Feinman, Claire 1984. "An Historical Overview of the Treatment of Incarcerated Women: Myths and Realities of Rehabilitation." The Prison Journal 63:12-26.
  • Pollock, Joycelyn M. 1999. Criminal Women. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
  • Stanko, Elizabeth A. 1986. Intimate Intrusions: Women’s Experience of Male Violence. New York: Routledge, Kegan Paul.

Plus, choose one of these two articles:

  • Daly, Kathleen and Meda Chesney-Lind 1988. "Feminism and Criminology." Justice Quarterly 5(4):497-535.
  • Simpson, Sally S. 1989. "Feminist Theory, Crime and Justice." Criminology 27:605-631.

And choose one of these two books:

  • Martin, Susan Ehrlich and Nancy C. Jurik 1996. Doing Justice, Doing Gender. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Miller, Susan L. (Ed.) 1998. Crime Control and Women: Feminist Implications of Criminal Justice Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Recommended Readings for Women and Crime:

  • Adler, Freda. 1975. Sisters in Crime. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Baskin, Deborah R. and Ira B. Sommers. 1998. Casualties of Community Disorder: Women’s Careers in Violent Crime. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Epstein, Cynthia. 1981. Women in Law. New York: Basic Books.
  • Freedman, Estelle B. 1974. "Their Sister's Keepers: A Historical Perspective of Female Correctional Institutions in the U. S.” Feminist Studies 2:77-95.
  • Garza, Hedda and James Cockcroft 1996. Barred from the Bar : A History of Women in the Legal Profession. Franklin Watts, Incorporated.
  • Gilfus, Mary E. 1992. "From Victims To Survivors to Offenders: Women's Routes of Entry and Immersion into Street Crime." Women & Criminal Justice 4:63-90.
  • Klein, Dorie 1973. "The Etiology of Female Crime: A Review of the Literature." Issues in Criminology 8:3-30.
  • Martin, Susan. 1980. Breaking and Entering: Policewomen on Patrol. Berkley: University of California Press.
  • McClellan, Dorothy S., David Farabee, and Ben M. Crouch 1997. “Early Victimization, Drug Use and Criminality: A Comparison of Male and Female Prisoners.” Criminal Justice and Behavior 24(4):455-76.
  • Miller, Susan L. 1999. Gender and Community Policing : Walking the Talk. Northeastern Univ Press.
  • Naffine, Ngaire 1987. Female Crime: The Construction of Women in Criminology. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
  • Pollock-Byrne, Joycelyn M. 1990. Women, Prison and Crime. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Price, Barbara Raffel and Natalie J. Sokoloff (Eds.) 1995. The Criminal Justice System and Women: Offenders, Victims and Workers, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Rafter, Nicole H. 1990. Partial Justice: Women, Prison, and Social Control, 2nd edition. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
  • Smart, Carol 1976. Women, Crime and Criminology: A Feminist Critique. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • Walker, Lenore. 1979. The Battered Woman. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Zietz, Dorothy. 1990. Women who Embezzle or Defraud: A Study of Convicted Felons. New York: Praeger.

Juvenile Justice, Delinquency, and Gangs


Students choosing this area must take the following course for graduate credit:
CJC 5520 Juvenile Justice

Essential Readings for Juvenile Justice, Delinquency and Gangs: 7 books and 1 article

  • Chesney-Lind, Meda and John M. Hagedorn (Eds.) 1999. Female Gangs in America: Essays on Girls, Gangs, and Gender. Chicago : Lake View Press
  • Chesney-Lind, Meda and Randall G. Shelden (1992 or later edition). Girls, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Izzo, R.L. & Ross, R.R. 1990. “Meta-Analysis of Rehabilitation Programs for Juvenile Delinquents.” Criminal Justice and Behavior 17(1):134-142.
  • Krisberg, Barry and James F. Austin 1993. Reinventing Juvenile Justice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Miller, Jody, Cheryl Maxson and Malcolm Klein 2000. The Modern Gang Reader. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company.
  • Roberts, Albert 1998. Juvenile Justice: Policies, Programs, and Services, 2nd Ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Wooden, Wayne S. and Randy Blazak 2001. Renegade Kids, Suburban Outlaws. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Zimring, Franklin 1998. American Youth Violence. New York: Oxford University Press.

Recommended Readings for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency:

  • Bishop, Donna and Charles Frazer 1992. "Gender Bias in Juvenile Justice Processing: Implications of the JJDP Act." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 82:1162-1186.
  • Cloward, R.A. & Ohlin, L.E. 1960. Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs. New York: Free Press.
  • Finckenauer, James O. 1982. Scared Straight! and the Panacea Phenomenon. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Garrett, C.J. 1985. “Effects of Residential Treatment on Adjudicated Delinquents: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 22(4):287-308.
  • Lemert, E.M. 1981. “Diversion in Juvenile Justice: What Hath Been Wrought.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 18(1):34-46.
  • Mennel, R.M. 1973. Thorns and Thistles: Juvenile Delinquency in the United States, 1825-1940. New Hampshire: University Press of New England.
  • Platt, Anthony M. 1977. The Child Savers: The Invention of Delinquency, 2nd edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Salerno, A.W. 1991. “The Child Saver Movement: Altruism or a Conspiracy?” Juvenile and Family Court Journal 1991:37-49.